The Cucumber Step Redundancy project is intended to highlight steps that have been implemented in Java but are no longer used. Cucumber will readily report on Cucumber steps in feature files that have no implementation, but it will not report on implemented steps that have no feature file referencing step.

Common scenarios are when a step is implemented, but the referring step in the Cucumber feature file is edited to do something else, or removed altogether.

The purpose of this project is to ensure your code base is as current as possible relative to your feature files and to ensure that unused legacy code doesn't persist and complicate your code base.

Please note that this solution will only work for Cucumber version 1.1.8 and before. The functionality on which it is based has been removed from subsequent versions of Cucumber. We may look to support more current versions in the future.

The Cucumber Step Redundancy project is located HERE

The code itself is a single file. We recommend you simply copy the class into your project; editing the file as required. The redundancy check file can be found HERE.

Or you can simply copy the code from below.


import cucumber.api.CucumberOptions;
import cucumber.api.junit.Cucumber;
import org.junit.runner.JUnitCore;
import org.junit.runner.Result;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import java.util.List;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import static java.util.Arrays.asList;
import static;

public class RedundancyCheck {

    private static Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(RedundancyCheck.class);

    private static final String REPORT = "/target/";

    public static void main(String... args) throws IOException {
        final List stepDefinitions = asList(new Gson().fromJson(loadReport(), Definition[].class));

    private static String loadReport() throws IOException {
        final Result result = new JUnitCore().run(Runner.class);
        if (result.wasSuccessful()) {
            return readFileToString(new File(System.getProperty("user.dir") + REPORT + "stepdefs.json"), "UTF-8");
        } else {
            throw new RuntimeException("Could not load Cucumber step definition file as generation was not successful");

    private static void printRedundantSteps(List stepDefinitions) {
                filter(p -> p.steps.length == 0).
                map(p -> p.source).
                forEach(source ->;

    private static class Definition {
        private Steps[] steps;
        private String source;
        public void setSteps(Steps[] steps) {
            this.steps = steps;
        public void setSource(String source) {
            this.source = source;

    private static class Steps {
        private String name;
        public void setName(String name) {
   = name;

    @CucumberOptions(glue = "", features = {"classpath:features"}, dotcucumber = "." + REPORT, format = "usage", monochrome = true, dryRun = true)
    public class Runner {


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